- Master of Science in Behavioral Psychology
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Pavlov is Russia's most famous scientist. He first won greatdistinction for his research on the physiology of th digestive system. Pavlovencountered a methodological problem that was ultimately to prove moreimportant and more interesting than his physiological research.
Master of Science in Behavioral Psychology
He haddiscovered "conditioning". For Pavlov, all behavior was reflexive. But how do such behaviors differfrom the behavior commonly called "instinctive"? Instinctivebehavior is sometimes said to be motivated. The animal has to be hungry, to besexually aroused, or to have nest-building hormones before these kinds ofinstinctive behavior can occur. But Pavlov concluded that there seems to be nobasis for distinguishing between reflexes and what has commonly been thought ofas non reflexive behavior. As a psychologist, Pavlov was concerned with thenervous system, and specifically the cerebral cortex, not with any lawfulnessthat he might find in behavior.
At a more abstract level, Pavlov thought that all learning, whether ofelicited responses in animals or of highly conceptual behaviors in humans, wasdue to the mechanisms of classical conditioning. We now believe it to be wrong,but it is none the less one of the great ideas of our culture. John B. Watson was one of the most colorful personalities in thehistory of psychology. Although he did not invent behaviorism, he became widelyknown as its chief spokesman and protagonist. Watson was brought up in the prevalent tradition: Mechanism explains behavior. In a widely used textbook Watson, he said that the study ofthe mind is the province of philosophy; it is the realm of speculation andendless word games.
The mind has no place in psychology. A science ofpsychology must be based on objective phenomena and the ultimate explanationmust be found in the central nervous system. It was Watson, more than Pavlov or any other one person, who convincedpsychologists that the real explanation of behavior lay in the nervous systemand that as soon as we understood the brain a little better, most of themysteries would disappear. And, it was mainly because of Watson that so manypsychologists came to believe that what they called conditioning was soimportant.
Skinner is considered by many authorities to have been thegreatest behavioral psychologist of all time. Earlier behaviorism had been concerned with stimulus-responseconnections.
Skinner looked at the learning process in the opposite way,investigating how learning was affected by stimuli presented after an act wasperformed. He found that certain stimuli caused the organism to repeat an actmore frequently. He called stimuli with this effect the "reinforcers". Watson found that by providing reinforcement in a systematic way one couldshape the behavior in desired directions.
Link to operant. Teachers have benefited the most from Skinner's fundamental work inreinforcement as a means of controlling and motivating student behavior. Itsvarious applications to classroom practice are commonly called "behaviormodification", a technique that many teachers consider to be one of theirmost valuable tools for improving both learning and behavior of their students.
Classical conditioning is demonstrated when a neutral stimulus acquiresthe eliciting properties of the unconditioned stimulus through pairing theunconditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus. Behavior is controlled byassociation. Operant conditioning is demonstrated when the reinforcing consequencesimmediately following the response increases its future likelihood; aversiveconsequences immediately following the response to decrease its futurelikelihood.
Love Styles scale developed by Sternberg. The findings suggested that there was a significant difference in self-efficacy and love in individuals going through divorce and normal individuals in all aspects at 0. Hence, the results from the study show that individual going throu April 26, The two most common bipolar disorders are bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder.
Comorbid psychiatric disorders usually precede the onset of bipolar disorder. Studies have shown that patients with mood disorders have more comorbid medical illnesses. Research has suggested that that there may be underlying biological mechanisms linking mood disorder and many medical illnesses.
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The current study will determine the psychiatric and medical disorders in a sample of patients with bipolar affective disorder in a general hospital setting. Review Article. February 06, Comparing Person Lineups with a Person Lineup.
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There is insufficient data on the effect of lineup size on identifications in large lineups. This study therefore compared person lineups, a size used often in large lineup experiments, with a lineup double the size, At least one hour after viewing a two-minute video featuring the target, other people and other objects, 52 participants viewed person lineups four screens of 12 or a person lineup eight screens of No difference was found in the rate of identifications between the two lineup sizes.
The conclusion is that the larger lineup is superior due to the smaller chance of mistakenly choosing an innocent suspect January 22, Young children have similar kind of stressors and that are impactful to their mental health. In this age it is very important to develop such practices that encourage social interaction. Inculcating social interaction practices and activities will empower the young generation to deal with their stressors and enhance their mental wellbeing.
This paper will focus on sharing various strategies that will be helpful to all people dealing with young children at home or any kind of healthcare setup January 17, Prevalence of Substance Abusers in a Tourist Area. Introduction: Drug abuse is becoming the emerging problem in the youth which breaks back of any nation and it is more prevalent in tourist areas. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during the month of January at health camps organized in a tourist area by an NGO HR foundation.
Total subjects were studied. Results and conclusion: In this study majority of cases were males belonging to younger age groups. Majority of the patients belonged to lower socioeconomic section. Charas was the most commonly abused substance followed by alcohol December 17, A reviewer of a book I wrote claimed an idea presented therein could be found elsewhere. Nine years later, no one could say where, but no one would correct the erroneous claim, so what began as an effort to obtain a redress of a legitimate grievance slowly degenerated into a tour deface of a surreal ethics warp in our intellectual community October 22, Communication is a common subject in a variety of scientific disciplines and in medicine it means building a doctor - patient relationship, listening, gaining trust, empathy .
In recent years the reasons have been investigated why a patient follows a given dental therapy. The role of communication used during dental treatment - verbal and non-verbal - is the basis of these studies. Their treatment is defined as a stress factor in everyday practice and a challenge for the dentist .
The dentist requires a special approach with these types of patients in order to have strong communication with the patient and to facilitate better therapeutic results and satisfaction with the treatment . The aim of this study is to investigate the opinion of Bulgarian dent October 17, Written by Mohd.
Ghazali Mohayidin and Habibah Rohany, the writing of this book focuses on the systematic use of plantation management systems, especially on matters relating to storing records such as balance sheets, income statements to facilitate those involved with farm management to make an analysis of the profits or efficiency of farm management that during this is ignored. Each reader of this book is either a student at a higher education center, an agricultural officer, an expansion agent, an estate manager or a farmer who owns small plantations individually or in groups is expected to benefit from this book October 15, With the medical field making constant and dramatic improvements in treatment and prevention of disease progression, life expectancies in the United States are increasing dramatically, with the elderly population demonstrating the greatest expansion.
What is a Behavioral Psychologist?
This substantial increase in the elderly population creates new and unfounded challenges in treating and caring for this sect of the population. This particular study emphasized the need to develop and sustain means of special care for the growing population of the frail and vulnerable elderly October 09, Consider Sequestering Geniuses. Here we provide a brief examination of how to improve the productivity of geniuses by sequestering them into a venue where they are free from the struggles of ordinary schools.
The conclusion reached is that the present system is probably the best we can do for them October 04, We are all aware of many beliefs about the superiority of girls over boys among the very young: girls are expected to speak earlier than boys, to adjust to social requirements better and at an earlier age than boys, and to function better in activities demanding fine motor skills. The question whether this is also the case among the gifted has remained unsolved, in spite of the fact that the study of gifted kindergarten students has been a most intriguing one for researchers for many years.
In this study we have challenged the general belief of superior female development among pre-school children, by showing that participation rate of girls amonggifted pre-school children is lesser than among older children. The instruction of physical education comes with challenges not typically experienced in a class containing more traditional material e.
While these academic courses place rigorous demands on the cognitive abilities of students,, physical education and lifetime physical activity courses, as taught here at West Point, place a far greater demand on the biomotor capacities and abilities of students. With a flipped classroom, students can be assessed prior to initiating in-class activities to ensure comprehension of cognitive aspects of content. Utilizing a blended environment, or in the case of West Point, the Thayer Method, instructors provide cadets a brief opportunity for questions at the beginning of class prior to assessments .
Providing multiple points of review beyond a simple mid- and end-of-year assessment September 21, A Review on Nerve Conduction Studies. Electrophysiological measurements are indispensable tool for investigating the functional integrity of peripheral nerves in both clinical and laboratory environments.
Behavioral Psychology: Selected full-text books and articles
Nerve conduction study is a property of both the axons and myelin sheath. The nerve conduction velocity is highly dependent on rapid signal propagation enabled by myelination. The compound motor action potential CMAP which correlates with the number of functional axons is an indicator for axonal damage when significantly reduced.